From NPR! 抗生素濫用!美國FDA仿效荷蘭模式,抗生素少往動物身上打。 雖然硬性文章不見得有趣,但學習英文偶爾也應該熟讀一篇深度文章,替自己累積實力。

在美國有超過七成的抗生素不是用在人身上,而是飼養的牲畜。抗生素的濫用雖然備受重視,但因為牽扯的利益範圍太廣了,全面禁用幾乎不可能。
下面這篇報導值得我們深思。
在歐美地區

牲畜使用抗生素最少的國家,
全球排名前五名的國家分別是
1. 挪威
2. 愛爾蘭
3. 紐西蘭
4. 瑞典
5. 澳洲
上面這張圖表說明了具有抗藥性的細菌是如何廣泛地散布。
基本上,動物跟人類只要服用抗生素,體內就會發展出抗藥性
動物身上具有抗藥性的細菌會殘留在體內,傳播的途徑有
1. 烹煮或處理肉類的時候稍有不慎,很容易傳給人類

2. 具有抗藥性的細菌透過牲畜的糞便傳播,一但糞便被當成肥料,很可能沾染作物傳給人

3.
動物糞便中具有抗藥性的細菌與農作物,一但讓人類吃下肚後,很有可能就會傳播給人。
再來就是人傳人的狀況
1. 人體內具有抗藥性的病毒會傳給家人
2. 住院治療的病人體內若有具有抗藥性的細菌,這些細菌會傳給醫護人員或是在醫院的人,這包含了探病、看病的人還有住院的其他病人



下載聲音檔請點我

下載填空卷請點我

下載解析版請點我


From NPR
FDA Launches Voluntary Plan To Reduce Use Of Antibiotics In Animals
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

And I'm Robert Siegel. The Food and Drug Administration 美國食品藥物管理局FDA announced a plan today to cut back減少 the use of antibiotics抗生素 on farm animals. If it works, within three years, pork and chicken producers will no longer use antibiotics to make their animals grow faster.

But NPR's Dan Charles reports, the plan has its share of skeptics非常令人質疑 because it relies on依靠 voluntary cooperation自願配合.

DAN CHARLES, BYLINE: Pork and chicken producers use antibiotics to fight off抵禦/對抗 disease, but also to help their animals grow faster and use feed more efficiently吃飼料後能長得更好. The FDA's been worried about the overuse of antibiotics on the farm for decades. The reason is, the more these drugs are used, the more quickly bacteria in the animals will develop resistance to發展出抗藥性 them. Some of these microbes微生物microorganism can infect感染 people, too, and then the antibiotics won't work.

Thirty-five years ago, the agency proposed banning禁止 the use of some antibiotics as growth promoters促進成長劑, then it withdrew the proposal. Today, Michael Taylor, the FDA's deputy commissioner副局長 for food, announced a new approach.

MICHAEL TAYLOR: We must find a practical and effective務實與有效的 way to limit the use of these animal drugs to treating, controlling and preventing specific disease.

CHARLES: The FDA is starting some intensive consultations密集諮詢 with the drug industry and veterinarians. The agency says it has persuaded drug companies to stop listing more efficient production as an acceptable use of antibiotics or antimicrobials抗微生物 in farm animals. And no drugs will be used on animals without a veterinarian in charge.負責

But all this is voluntary. The reason, Taylor says, is the voluntary route is more practical and effective than trying to legally ban hundreds of different drugs and defend each one in court上法院.

TAYLOR: It's decades of effort and millions and millions of dollars in resources.

CHARLES: And we don't even need to go through that, Taylor says. The meat industry now is willing to limit its use of antibiotics only to what's really necessary to treat or prevent disease.

Scott Hurd, a veterinarian at Iowa State University and a former USDA official, says this voluntary approach will change farmers' practices作法.

SCOTT HURD: Because, even though it's called a guidance引導守則, essentially, people take it as the gospel福音 and as the law, so growth promotion usages will go away.

CHARLES: Now, some people don't buy that不相信. The Natural Resources Defense Council美國自然資源保護委員會 called today's FDA action make believe reform自欺欺人的改革. Skeptics懷疑者 say the industry has shown little interest in不趕興趣 change. Also, what's truly necessary use of antibiotics is a matter of interpretation針對某個議題或是事物,每個人自有不同解釋.

Consider what happened in parts of Europe when the European Union banned the use of antibiotics for the purposes of animal growth promotion in 2006. Dik Mevius, a leading expert on…的專家 antibiotic resistance at the University of Utrecht荷蘭烏特勒支大學(歷史最優久的一所學府) in the Netherlands, says meat producers there simply started using more antibiotics for what was still allowed, preventing disease or treating it.

DIK MEVIUS: So we saw a more or less doubling of those drugs that were used for therapy, so the total exposure這邊指的是使用量(此字原意是曝光) of animals to antibiotics remains virtually the same from 1999 to 2007.

CHARLES: After that, though, and after lots of pig farmers realized they and their families were carrying antibiotic resistant strains of disease-causing bacteria體內的細菌出現抗藥性, the Dutch government clamped down hard以嚴格的方式去執行或是取締. Each farm now has to report how often it uses antibiotics for all purposes. Farms that used a lot are told specifically what they need to do to cut back減少. The government is funding lots of research into farming methods that don't require antibiotics and antibiotic use is now coming down.減少

Laura Rogers with the Pew Campaign on Human Health and Industrial Farming says the FDA may need to do something similar so the prescriptions aren't simply rewritten to call them disease prevention drugs.這邊是指專家建議美國食品藥物管理局,也要仿效荷蘭模式,不要讓業者以預防疾病的名目濫用抗生素。

LAURA ROGERS: The loophole漏洞 that does remain is these uses of the drugs for prevention purposes and they are used in mass quantities以預防疾病為目的抗生素或藥物的使用量極大, so that's really going to be where FDA's going to have to dig in切入點.

CHARLES: The FDA says it will see how well this voluntary program works over the next three years. If it doesn't seem to be effective, the agency will have to try something different.

Dan Charles, NPR News.







留言

這個網誌中的熱門文章

Resolve and solve 有什麼不同?該怎麼用?一分鐘搞懂!

最美麗的英文字 Serendipity ,是翻譯者最不想碰的難題。Looking for one thing: finding another...

Vegan 跟 vegetarian 其實不同派。關於各種「飲食派」的英文,這篇全介紹!吃素好處多,吃素可以救地球!

你相信亡靈的存在嗎?我曾經與亡者有過交集,還有屬於我自己的地藏經感應篇。

台灣小吃英文報導,CNN一網打盡,同場加映雞蛋糕與車輪餅英文喔!

英文文法懶人包,一次下載14包,讓你口說寫作不出包!

留學申請寫好SOP? 請聽美國名校評審委員怎麼說? 所有連結都已經更新可以下載了。