From NPR! 抗生素濫用！美國FDA仿效荷蘭模式，抗生素少往動物身上打。 雖然硬性文章不見得有趣，但學習英文偶爾也應該熟讀一篇深度文章，替自己累積實力。
FDA Launches Voluntary Plan To Reduce Use Of Antibiotics In Animals
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.
ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
And I'm Robert Siegel. The Food and Drug Administration 美國食品藥物管理局FDA announced a plan today to cut back減少 the use of antibiotics抗生素 on farm animals. If it works, within three years, pork and chicken producers will no longer use antibiotics to make their animals grow faster.
But NPR's Dan Charles reports, the plan has its share of skeptics非常令人質疑 because it relies on依靠 voluntary cooperation自願配合.
DAN CHARLES, BYLINE: Pork and chicken producers use antibiotics to fight off抵禦/對抗 disease, but also to help their animals grow faster and use feed more efficiently吃飼料後能長得更好. The FDA's been worried about the overuse of antibiotics on the farm for decades. The reason is, the more these drugs are used, the more quickly bacteria in the animals will develop resistance to發展出抗藥性 them. Some of these microbes微生物microorganism can infect感染 people, too, and then the antibiotics won't work.
Thirty-five years ago, the agency proposed banning禁止 the use of some antibiotics as growth promoters促進成長劑, then it withdrew the proposal. Today, Michael Taylor, the FDA's deputy commissioner副局長 for food, announced a new approach.
MICHAEL TAYLOR: We must find a practical and effective務實與有效的 way to limit the use of these animal drugs to treating, controlling and preventing specific disease.
CHARLES: The FDA is starting some intensive consultations密集諮詢 with the drug industry and veterinarians. The agency says it has persuaded drug companies to stop listing more efficient production as an acceptable use of antibiotics or antimicrobials抗微生物 in farm animals. And no drugs will be used on animals without a veterinarian in charge.負責
But all this is voluntary. The reason, Taylor says, is the voluntary route is more practical and effective than trying to legally ban hundreds of different drugs and defend each one in court上法院.
CHARLES: And we don't even need to go through that,
says. The meat industry now is willing to limit its use of antibiotics only to
what's really necessary to treat or prevent disease. Taylor
Scott Hurd, a veterinarian at Iowa State University and a former USDA official, says this voluntary approach will change farmers' practices作法.
SCOTT HURD: Because, even though it's called a guidance引導守則, essentially, people take it as the gospel福音 and as the law, so growth promotion usages will go away.
CHARLES: Now, some people don't buy that不相信. The Natural Resources Defense Council美國自然資源保護委員會 called today's FDA action make believe reform自欺欺人的改革. Skeptics懷疑者 say the industry has shown little interest in對…不趕興趣 change. Also, what's truly necessary use of antibiotics is a matter of interpretation針對某個議題或是事物，每個人自有不同解釋.
Consider what happened in parts of
Europe when the European Union banned the use of
antibiotics for the purposes of animal growth promotion in 2006.
Dik Mevius, a leading
resistance at the University of Utrecht荷蘭烏特勒支大學(歷史最優久的一所學府) in the
Netherlands, says meat producers there simply started using more antibiotics
for what was still allowed, preventing disease or treating it.
DIK MEVIUS: So we saw a more or less doubling of those drugs that were used for therapy, so the total exposure這邊指的是使用量(此字原意是曝光) of animals to antibiotics remains virtually the same from 1999 to 2007.
CHARLES: After that, though, and after lots of pig farmers realized they and their families were carrying antibiotic resistant strains of disease-causing bacteria體內的細菌出現抗藥性, the Dutch government clamped down hard以嚴格的方式去執行或是取締. Each farm now has to report how often it uses antibiotics for all purposes. Farms that used a lot are told specifically what they need to do to cut back減少. The government is funding lots of research into farming methods that don't require antibiotics and antibiotic use is now coming down.減少
Laura Rogers with the Pew Campaign on Human Health and Industrial Farming says the FDA may need to do something similar so the prescriptions aren't simply rewritten to call them disease prevention drugs.這邊是指專家建議美國食品藥物管理局，也要仿效荷蘭模式，不要讓業者以預防疾病的名目濫用抗生素。
LAURA ROGERS: The loophole漏洞 that does remain is these uses of the drugs for prevention purposes and they are used in mass quantities以預防疾病為目的抗生素或藥物的使用量極大, so that's really going to be where FDA's going to have to dig in切入點.
CHARLES: The FDA says it will see how well this voluntary program works over the next three years. If it doesn't seem to be effective, the agency will have to try something different.
Dan Charles, NPR News.