寫作黃金守則前言 Rule Number 1 不耍花槍,簡單就好






















illustration by Alan Baker

親愛的同學

這輩子能成為大文豪的人沒幾個
不過要寫好一篇文章
尤其是考試所需要的文章
其實不會太難
最近因為批改學生的作文
讓我發心想要寫一些關於英文寫作的文章
希望能幫助同學
這些文章將會每周發表一篇
同學可以將上傳的資料下載
將來寫完十篇之後
我會集結成一套
提供大家下載

下載此篇文章pdf檔案請點我



英文寫作黃金守則第一戰(前言)

Golden Rule No. 1 不耍花槍 簡單就好

教科書沒人愛讀,不過小說大家總愛看吧。美國知名小說家Stephen King的作品經常是暢銷排行榜常客,他的許多小說都曾經被拍成影片。這位曾榮獲諸多大獎的作家,作品雖多以驚悚小說為主,不過他的文字卻異常平實。看過史蒂芬‧金小說的人都曉得,他的書之所以引人入勝,是因為情節。他寫作不拖泥帶水,文筆非常懇切。這些都是我們可以學習的地方。幾年前他寫了一本回憶錄,其實是要跟讀者分享寫作的一點心得。書中他的措辭犀利且直率,不過言語中帶著謙卑。這是非常動人的特質。黃金寫作第一戰,我要鼓勵一個觀念,那就是抄襲

你可以準備一個小本子,或是把你的智慧手機隨時帶著,看到美好的句子就記下來,沒事看看它們,有空寫英文日誌的時候,可以現學現賣一番。當然,你不會記得抄下來的所有句型,但是這些句子中,總有幾句會跟著你一輩子。如果你持續這個習慣,幾年後你隨時都會有寫作的素材。這一點是千真萬確的。我所認識一流寫手當中,每個人都有天天閱讀的習慣。大量閱讀是豐實寫作的資糧。

言歸正傳,回到史蒂芬金。關於他的那本回憶錄Stephen King, On Writing, A Memoir of the Craft.看看國外一些寫作部落格對這本書的一些評價:

“King has an honest voice in his fiction and in his memoir. He tells it like it is and makes us relate to him and his characters. Since King´s fiction often is of an odd kind with strange plots that seldom happen to normal people I think one of his strengths as a writer is being able to write relatable content anyway.
One of the keys to doing that is to have an honest voice and honest characters with both bad and good sides to them. People we can relate to with all of their faults, passions, fears, weaknesses and good moments. King´s characters seem human. That creates a strong connection to the reader who starts caring about the characters.
Another key to being honest and relatable is keeping a conversational style. Keeping it simple and using language that isn’t unnecessarily complicated. Using the words that first come to mind.

上面這段文字就是今天我要跟各位分享的寫作第一步。Keep everything simple.
詞藻的鋪陳與複雜的句型是某些文豪與政客的專利,這不是我們這邊要學的東西。如果之前你的英文老師沒有告訴你怎麼寫好一篇文章,別怪他,因為可能連他自己也不會寫文章。台灣的英語教育重視的是文法結構與單字。你的英文老師還是學生的時候,他的老師就是這樣教他的,相信我,我的英文老師也是這樣教我的。文法與單字當然重要,但是寫作不能只靠文法與單字。若不大量閱讀,最後上場考試時,只能拼拼句子湊數,寫出來的東西其實也不是你自己的東西。抄下優美的句型,是平日用心的鍛鍊,並非考試時拿來應付的法寶。寫作模板可以使用,但是除了模板之外,你還需要很多別的加持。
學學史蒂芬金吧。上面那篇文章節錄,說明了他的寫作特色

1.    Honest 誠實 (寫自己的東西,量力而為)
2.    Relatable 關聯性 (好引發共鳴)
3.    Conversational 口語化(不玩文字遊戲)
4.    Simple 簡單就好 (省麻煩,容易消化)

If you are wondering, the seven writing tips are:還有疑問嗎?史蒂芬金說,他寫作有七大要訣,分享如下

1.    Get to the point 寫重點別囉嗦
2.    Write a draft. Then let it rest 先打草稿,寫完了之後放一夜再回頭來看
3.    Cut down your text 替文章減肥
4.    Be relatable and honest 誠實不虛
5.    Don´t care too much what others may think 先別管他人怎麼想
6.    Read a lot 大量閱讀
7.    Write a lot 大量寫作

其實上述這七個守則,執行起來一點都不難。這些都是態度與習慣養成的先決條件。英文不是我們的母語,所以大家的首要任務是先多聽英文廣播,多閱讀英文報章雜誌,習慣英語的語法跟語感。單字與文法也能在這樣的過程中一一被吸收與檢視。不一定要挑很難的文章來念,簡單的文章也很好。總之,每日都吸收一些。我都跟女學生說,把英文實力的鍛鍊當成每天的敷臉與美容步驟,一天半小時也行。男同學想要鍛鍊身體,每天做做伏地挺身,打球或是舉啞鈴,幾個月後就能看到漂亮的肌肉線條了。

寫好英文作文不難,時間不用長,重點在天天都練習,並且持之以恆。

接下來要講重點了。怎麼寫英文作文?大家要熟悉最基本的寫作架構。什麼是寫作架構,看看下面這張圖,你就會一目了然。這樣的寫作架構,不是教大家寫論文,而是簡單的五百字作文。
         


 每一篇文章都應該具備下面這樣的結構:




如果你之前不曉得有這種東西,現在你知道了。
其實考托福口說,也可以按照這樣的結構,有了一定的脈絡,你寫起來省事,閱讀的人讀起來也省事。在口說課程上,我不厭其煩地要求同學按照這個模式來說,就是這個道理。這個結構不複雜,記得下回寫作的時候,要熟悉這樣的架構。

熟悉結構之後,我希望大家養成一個習慣,那就是,寫作之前可否給自己一點時間構思。需要多少時間?不用多,三分鐘也行。不要邊寫邊想,這樣容易顧此失彼,或是頭重腳輕。全盤推演後寫出一個大綱,然後按著大綱走。這樣你的文章就會有

Introduction
Body
Conclusion

三塊重點



每一個論點都要有支持點。不然就是空談。比方說你支持垃圾回收。請不要只說垃圾回收很好,每個人都該做。支持垃圾回收只是你的論點,每個論點都要有具體的範例或是說法來支持。
垃圾回收的優點 :
1.可以廢物利用,資源再生,對環境好
2.養成分類習慣,不會製造更多的浪費
看到了嗎,上面兩個support point就是你要想的支持點。在托福的寫作中,這些支持點非常重要。你不用想太多,兩個就好了。

接下來我們來看一篇文章,透過解說先落實先前講的幾個要點

1.    Honest 誠實 (寫自己的東西,量力而為)
2.    Relatable 關聯性 (好引發共鳴)
3.    Conversational 口語化(不玩文字遊戲)
4.    Simple 簡單就好 (省麻煩,容易消化)

作文實作


 In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details.

原文

  I don't think it is a good idea for teenagers to have jobs while they are still students. It can interfere with their studies, it can disrupt their home life, and it takes away pan of their childhood that they can never replace.

  Education today is very complex and difficult. In order to learn and get good grades, a student must work very hard and concentrate. This means attending classes from early in the morning until late afternoon, then doing research for projects, then going home and doing homework. It's a busy schedule for anyone. For someone trying to hold down a job, it's even harder. Students need all their energy for their studies. If they're working after class at night, they're going to be tired the next day. They won't be able to concentrate. This will have a negative impact on their learning, and eventually on their grades.

  Having a job can also disrupt a teenager's home life. Families spend less and less time together. If a teenager has a job to go to after school, he won't be home for dinner. He won't be home after dinner, either, and may not get home until late at night. This means he doesn't have a lot of time to spend with his family. If he doesn't have a car, it can mean changes in his parents' schedules, too.

  They have to drive him to work and pick him up.

  The main drawback of a teenager having a job while he's still a student is that he's missing out on the fun of being young. He has a whole lifetime in which he'll have to earn a living. This is the last free time he'll have. It's the last chance he'll have to hang out with friends and just enjoy himself. Soon enough he'll have to worry about paying the rent and buying food.

  Jobs bring money, but money isn't everything. A teenager with a job gives up too much. No one should spend all his time at work, and especially not a teenager.



潤校後文章與說明 

(修改過程版本礙於部落格格式就不刊出
詳細內容載於pdf檔案中,敬請下載)


 Introduction (表明不贊成年輕學生打工)
     I don't think it is a good idea for teenagers to have jobs while they are still students because these jobs can interfere with their studies and disrupt their lives.

Body (支持點兩個)
1. 打工會太累,影響學習效能
     Today’s education environment has become increasingly competitive.  In order to learn well and get good grades, students must work very hard and concentrate better. They will need all the energy they can muster to focus on their studies. If they are working after class, they are going to feel tired the next day. They won't be able to concentrate in class. This in turn will have a negative impact on their learning, and eventually affect their grades.

2. 打工會影響生活。沒空與家人相處,引發誤解,造成疏離,更不能享受青春  
     Part time jobs disrupt teenagers' personal lives. They will end up having fewer opportunities to spend quality time with their families. If a young boy needs to work after school, he may not get home until late at night. This means that he is sacrificing his family time, and not being able to interact with his family members might result in isolation and misunderstandings.  Another drawback is that he will be missing out on the fun of being young and he might regret this later on when he grows up. After all, this is the last chance he'll ever have to hang out with friends and just enjoy himself.

Conclusion (重申立場,呼應論點:金錢非一切,打工錢又少,別浪費時間)  
     It’s true that jobs bring money, but money isn't everything. Most part time jobs pay even less. Teenagers need to exercise good judgment when it comes to having part time jobs. Unless these young people are in desperate need of money, part time jobs can sometimes be nothing but a waste of time.

這篇文章的修改,謹遵守簡約的原則
刪去了瑣碎的列舉流水帳
幫文章瘦身
只有修改句型
並不做修辭上的干預

請大家回家練習的時候
先參考上面貼的架構圖

先把握架構上的完整
一定要先構思再下筆
不要隨興亂寫一通

下周將有更多關於寫作的tips
請大家準時收看

最後要說的是,這些文章因為我貼來貼去
過程中有些修改
有時難免會有錯誤
若有同學發現有哪裡不對勁
歡迎大家當面或是留言跟我說
各位的指教能讓部落格更好
感謝大家的支持














留言

這個網誌中的熱門文章

Resolve and solve 有什麼不同?該怎麼用?一分鐘搞懂!

最美麗的英文字 Serendipity ,是翻譯者最不想碰的難題。Looking for one thing: finding another...

Vegan 跟 vegetarian 其實不同派。關於各種「飲食派」的英文,這篇全介紹!吃素好處多,吃素可以救地球!

你相信亡靈的存在嗎?我曾經與亡者有過交集,還有屬於我自己的地藏經感應篇。

台灣小吃英文報導,CNN一網打盡,同場加映雞蛋糕與車輪餅英文喔!

英文文法懶人包,一次下載14包,讓你口說寫作不出包!

留學申請寫好SOP? 請聽美國名校評審委員怎麼說? 所有連結都已經更新可以下載了。