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2017年1月20日 星期五

From Scientific American 體重數字攸關生存智商,快來聽科學人報導!





不要抗拒科普英文,類似的短篇每天聽上好幾遍,一直到爛熟為止,一段時間之後會發現英文功力將大增!給自己時間消化吸收不要搶快,耐心是學成的關鍵!



Coyote Size Forces Smartness
Topping out 達到高點 at about 20 kilograms, a coyote has to be able to hunt both smaller and bigger prey, and avoid being prey itself, a combination that selects for intelligence.

Steve Mirsky reports

Coyotes北美土狼. In the last two decades they’ve become common in almost every North American metropolitan area都會區域. Stanley Gehrt is a wildlife ecologist at Ohio State University who studies urban 都會/城市 coyotes in Chicago. He spoke October 20th at the ScienceWriters2014 meeting in Columbus, Ohio, about why coyotes are so good at adapting to適應 various environments:

“For
mammalian carnivores肉食性的哺乳動物, the 20-kilogram point此指階段/層級, 20 to 21 kilograms, is the key關鍵 here. Because mammalian predators哺乳類的掠奪者 that stay below that number can exist on prey smaller than them. And they’re often solitary獨行 or they only form small groups. And they can scavenge食腐(或是翻垃圾) and be able to meet their energetic needs.

“But it they exceed 20 kilograms in body weight, now they have to eat prey that’s their size or larger to be able to maintain their energetic requirement. So they often are hunting prey larger than them, which requires often
sociality交際/群居. And so that’s why wolves rely a lot on deer, moose麋鹿, elk駝鹿, that they have to hunt cooperatively 合作.

“Some of our coyotes get right to that 20-kilogram level, and that’s the perfect spot, because what they can do is they can either exist quite well on prey smaller than them, and that’s typically what they do, or if they have to,
if the conditions dictate it 狀況迫使, then they can hunt and consume吃/食 prey larger than them. So they can do whatever they need to do. As opposed to the others, you’ll never see foxes taking down prey that are their size or larger, or rarely will you see that. And you won’t see wolves living off 維生of really small prey, rodents齧齒目動物, for any length of time, they will temporarily but not for a long time. So this kind of sets the stage作好準備for the perfect predator掠奪者 here.

“Also, being in the middle means that they are also
subjected to 使服從於  predation at times有時 by the larger predators such as wolves and mountain lions, and the occasional bear. So they have to be extra good at能力要特好hunting their own prey as well as not becoming prey變成其他動物補食的對象 themselves. So it creates a super-smart animal.”

2 則留言:

  1. 老師,您真很喜歡scientific american的文章耶,有什特別的原因嗎? :D

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  2. Hi Sebas,

    這是我的托福聽力課程必用的補充資料,替學生多充實科普英文的知識與單字。

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